A template is an empty “model” project, ready to receive the tracks you want to import.
Digital Audio Workstations (DAWs) come with many templates of their own and it’s either possible to customize them or create new ones from scratch.
A typical template is usually made of:
- empty audio tracks
- bus groups
- FX channels
You want to have as many empty tracks as needed per instrument, in a band’s template (Orchestral Templates will be dealt with separately in a dedicated section of this blog) you will see the following:
You want to make sure to have at least two tracks for the bass drum, two – three for the snare, one for each tom, one for the hi-hat, two overhead tracks (one mono and one stereo), one or two room tracks. Tracks are mono unless specified.
For the bass it’s okay to start with two tracks and use filters so that one track has everything above 250Hz and the other one has everything below 250Hz. This gives you the opportunity to work on these bands separately, it’s set up now but it’s not necessarily going to be used. We’re assuming here that we’re going to import one bass track (let’s say a DI signal) and duplicate it, should we have more tracks (i.e. one or two mics plus DI signal) we will have to duplicate each track and split it at 250Hz.
Four empty guitar tracks plus two empty lead guitar tracks are generally a good place to start.
Two lead vocal tracks and eight backing vocals give you some headroom, you might not need these many but we can always use the spare tracks for more processed vocals at one point in the mix.
Keyboards usually come with their own stereo image, so we want to make sure to set these empty tracks as stereo. The stereo information that comes with a keyboard signal can often just be a disruption to our mix: it sounds amazing and full on its own but it takes too much space in the stereo field….it’s recommended to set a stereo imager on each empty keyboard track, later in the process it might be necessary to narrow a keyboard signal or even collapse it into mono and make it more manageable.
This is probably the most important and useful feature of any good template. Bus groups will dramatically improve the workflow and we want to set the routing in a way that gives us flexibility to do everything we want once we start mixing, we don’t want to fiddle with the routing along the way unless it’s unavoidable.
If we have multiple kick mics we need to create a kick bus group, that gives us the flexibility to work on the kick as a whole (from the group) or by shaping the sound that comes from the individual mics (from their tracks). Same for the snare. A toms bus can help, maybe each tom will be panned differently and have its on eq on the individual track but at one point in the mix we might want to turn the toms up/down as a whole or make volume automations etc.. a Drumkit bus will group all the instruments in this section, at this point add an empty group and name it “NY drums”, this will come in handy if (but only if) you want to do parallel bus compression later on – make sure to set a compressor and an eq on the insert and leave the fader to negative infinite…where is this track receiving the input from? From your drumkit bus, on this one you need a pre-fader send at 0dB to the NY drums bus. Finally, create a Total Drums bus and set it as the output for both the drumkit bus and the NY drums bus.
Do you only have the two tracks we mentioned before (above/below 250Hz)? One bass group channel will be enough. If more bass tracks are available (e.g. a DI track and one from a microphoned amp), once you’ve duplicated both and split the eq send all the low end tracks to a bus (named Bass Low End) and the high end tracks to another bus (named Bass High End) then assign the Total Bass channel group as the output for these subgroups. Add now a saturator to the high end of the bass, just set it up and leave it off, you might need it later on when mixing, nothing is decided yet. Bear in mind that 250Hz is nothing more than a decent starting point, you’ve set up a “multiband distortion” and you might want to change this number whilst you’re mixing.
Generally all the rhythm guitars will have their own subgroup, same for the lead guitars. These are all feeding into a Total Guitars channel bus.
Same for the vocals, a bus for the backing vocals and one for the lead vocals all feeding into a Total Vocals group.
One channel bus is usually enough for these but you might want to split them further if they have a different function in the arrangement. For example more pad-like keyboards could have a subgroup of their own, same for bass synths or lead synths. If orchestral arrangements are provided as individual instruments you should definitely set up one channel group for each section (Strings, Brass etc..). As above, all the necessary subgroups must feed into a Total Keyboards channel.
It seems like a lot of work but it’s a template, you will reuse it and modify it on the go. It will save you a lot of time in the long run.
Setting up Eq on each track at this stage might be overkill, it’s definitely okay to insert an Eq on each channel bus.
Same for compression, bus compressors (including the mixbus compressor) should be set up at this stage. It’s good to add a few (maybe two) with different characters and leave them off even though it’s known that we could end up using a different one altogether.
The one on the high end bass channel should be set up at this stage even though you’re not necessarily going to use it. One on the lead vocals or Total Vocals channel could be set up too. It doesn’t mean that we will use it but it’s there should we wish to give it a quick try whilst we’re mixing and do a bit of A/B comparison
At least two reverb instances are created at this stage: one convolution reverb (to recreate real spaces) and one algorithmic reverb (for effects and flavour). Nothing stops you from using just algoritmic or just converb or from mixing them up in other ways.
Same as the reverb, at least two tracks are created now, one for a mono delay and one for a stereo delay. Some people would also set up a short (slap) delay, which helps achieving a bigger sound when wanted but two instances are a decent starting point for most uses. You can quickly duplicate delay channels and change the settings as you go.
Enhancing your workflow with colours:
Yes, colours can be a mixing tool. Projects can expand and become massive, using a consistent colour code across all templates will help you identify sections, bus groups and FX channels quickly and edit them at once when necessary. In the example below you can see drum tracks in light blue, guitars are green, FX channels are purple etc…
A comprehensive template will provide you with everything you need for most tasks and it will save you the time to set all these things up whilst you’re mixing, which is what would happen if you didn’t have a template in the first place.
Do you have questions about this article? Contact Francesco.
Listen to Francesco’s Music